THE PROTOTYPE of SOCIALISM in RUSSIA VERSUS SPENCER’s LIBERALISM: THE HISTORY of NATIONAL MENTALITY
The article discusses the important problems of extending of socialistic idears in Russia. But Russian sociological works, the article is dedicated to English sociologist H. Spencer's historical works. Being an adept of positive philosophy, Spencer included sociological and political problems in analisis. He researched in details the reasons of socialistic idears and uncovered negative influence of it in society. The existing societies of socialistic type results from the transformation of communal collectivist relationships into dominating and universal ones, based on social-and-psychological and mental succession. This transformation is possible under the circumstances of external factors predominance. But internal circumstances of the society of such model assigned with intentional behavior, accustomed to the society behavior and recurred constantly due to its existence are more important. The presence of community relations in ancient Greco-Roman societies, medieval “free” towns and some modern countries does not necessarily lead to the establishment of socialistic relations. It is internal mental-and-psychological traditions of the development of the society that cause inevitable consequences: the unification of business corporation structure, the government staff increase, the leading role of the party. These consequences could be observed in the Soviet Union. The conditions for the formation of the society itself are its social-and-psychological characteristics. They may be varied only in form but not in their essence. This is the conclusion of the authors of the article, in which the prerequisites of the socialist regime formation in Russia of the XX-th century are examined.
Spenser, society, sociology, traditions, socialism, positive philosophe, socialistic ideas.